Key Dates for School Counselors:

1870-NEA founded

1892-American Psychological Association founded (150,000 members in 2006)

1897-Wilheim Wundt's Psychological Institute

1895-George Merrill-California School of Mechanical Arts-San Francisco-Vocational guidance experiment

1905-Alfred Binet's article, "New Methods for the Diagnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals," is published in France. The Binet-Simon Scale, as it is called, is an effective means of measuring intelligence.

1906-Frank Parson's founded education to work center/Trait-Factor Theory

1907-Jesse B. Davis introduced guidance lessons in English classes in Detroit on vocational and moral guidance

1908-Clifford Beers-A Mind That Found Itself, Eli Weaver-New York guidance services, Anne Reed-Seattle

1909-Parson's Choosing a Vocation, Beer's Mental Hygiene Movement

1910-John Dewey's How We Think

1911-Frank Goodwin-Cincinnati
1913-National Guidance Association, later becomes National Career Development Association, a division of ACA

1916 - Louis M. Terman completed an American version of the Binet-Simon Scale; the concept of the intelligence quotient (or IQ) is born. The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Scales is among the most popular individual intelligence tests today. For additional information on the history of intelligence testing, see A.C.E. Long History of the I.Q. Test.
1917-Smith-Hughes Act/Army Alpha Test-Yerkes (2 million soldiers)

1921-National Vocational Guidance Bulletin (later, Career Development Quarterly)

1922-John Dewey's concept of Progressive Education, The Human Nature and the Conduct

1923-Freud's The Ego and the Id

1925-American Vocational Association founded, renamed Association for Career and Technical Education in 1998, certification of counselors in Boston and New York

1926 - The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is first administered. It is based on the Army Alpha test.

1927-Strong Interest Inventory developed

1928-Hull's Aptitude Testing

1929-Strong Vocational Interest Inventory, first marriage & counseling center established in New York

1932-John Brewer's Education as Guidance, all teachers and guidance incorporated into curricula

1939-Dictionary of Occupational Titles published, E.G. Williamson's How to Counsel Students (Trait/Factor Theory)

1942-Carl Rogers' Counseling and Psychotherapy (Non-Directive)

1943-APA adopts division 17, Counseling & Guidance

1949-Occupational Outlook Handbook first edition published

1951-Occupational Outlook Handbook second edition published; Roger's Client-Centered Therapy, Axelrod, term Counseling Psychology is coined by Gilbert Wren, American Personnel and Guidance Association founded (Later, ACA)

1952-Journal of Counseling & Development

1953-Ethical Standards adopted by American Psychological Association

1954-Donald Super's Theory of Vocational Choice, Maslow's Hierarchy

1957-Occupational Outlook Handbook third edition published, Quarterly review begins

1958-National Defense Education Act (response to Sputnik I); full-time counselors increases from 12,000 to 27, 180 from 1958-63 and 400 counseling institutes funded by federal govermnet with over 13,000 counselors trained. Local school expenditures increased from $5.6 to $127 million from 1958-63. Piaget's Developmental Theory

1959-John Holland's Typology

1961-APGA code of ethics published

1962-Gilbert Wren's Culturally Encapsulated Counselor and Counseling in a Changing World (1964); Albert Ellis' RET and C.H. Patterson's Counseling and Guidance in Schools

1963-Vocational Education Act, E.C. Roeber's The School Counselor

1964-American School Counselor Association founded (18,000 members in 2006)

1965-Glasser's Reality Therapy, Elementary and Secondary Act

1966-National Employment Counselors Association formed

1967-4,000 Elementary counselors in 48 states

1974-Family Education and Privacy Act (Buckley Amendment)

1975-Education Act for all Handicapped Children (Special Education); Dr. Hougk founds Stephen Ministry

1976-Parloff identifies 130 counseling theories, Virginia becomes first state to pass counselor licensure law

1979-National Academic Advising Association begins

1981-CACREP accreditation of counseling program begins

1983-Nation at Risk Report, APGA changes name to American Counseling Association (80,000 members in 2006), NBCC formed

1985-Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, National Guidance Association becomes NCDA, division of ACA

1987-APA published DSM, Diagnostics and Statistics Manual, CACREP becomes member of Postsecondary Accreditation (COPA)

1988-American Disabilities Act (Section 504)

1993-American College Counseling Association formed

1994-School-to-Work Opportunities Act

1997-American School Counselor Association withdraws from ACA after a two year wait; CACREP accredits 115 counseling programs (90 school)

1998-American Vocational Association renamed Association for Career and Technical Education

2001-No Child Left Behind

2002-CACREP accredits 165 counseling programs (132 school)

January 20, 2006 CED 504 meets in Saginaw, Michigan

January 19, 2007 CED 504 meets in Troy, Michigan

History of School Counseling

Excellent Powerpoints on the History of School Counseling:

History of the Counseling Profession

History of Intelligence Testing

History of American Educational System:


History of the American Classroom

History of American Education Web Project

History of Vocational Education and overall Educational Resources
Ability Testing History

Timeline of Standardized Testing

Key Players in the History and Development of Intelligence and Testing

History of the Counseling Profession

History of Career Counseling

History of Ability Testing in the United States

History of Counseling Psychology

History of Academic Advising

History of Psychology

History and Systems of Psychology

Social Psychology Network's Historical Resources

Classics in the History of Psychology


WWW Virtual Library

Timeline of Psychological Ideas

Timeline of Psychology 1846-1935

Chronological History of Vocational Education